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rjbs (4671)

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I'm a Perl coder living in Bethlehem, PA and working Philadelphia. I'm a philosopher and theologan by training, but I was shocked to learn upon my graduation that these skills don't have many associated careers. Now I write code.

Journal of rjbs (4671)

Thursday September 04, 2008
07:11 PM

why sigils are great

[ #37357 ]

Last night at, I was talking a little bit with The Gang about some of the things I came to believe while doing the same thing in multiple languages. In explaining some of the issues I have with Ruby, both the scope of variables and the resolution of methods, this example came to me:

class X
  def x; return 10; end

  def y
    if false
      x = 100

    return x

  def z
    return x

obj =

puts "result of obj.y: #{obj.y.inspect}"
puts "result of obj.z: #{obj.z.inspect}"

This will print:

result of obj.y: nil
result of obj.z: 10

When obj.y is called, a variable called x is not assigned to, because the assignment happens in a conditional branch that is not entered. Nonetheless, the assignment to the variable creates the variable, because variables are not block scoped and because variables need not be explicitly declared. This means that when return x is reached, x is a local variable with no assigned value. That variable, which is nil, is returned.

When obj.z is called, nothing has defined x in the method's scope, so Ruby resolves it as a method call on the current target, obj. In other words, the x in the method z is the same as self.x.

Of course, good method and variable names goes a long way to making this less of an issue, but "Can't we just agree to not introduce bugs?" isn't a great safety net.

In Perl 6, the y method would be something like:

method y {
  if false { my $x = 100 }
  return $x;

...but that's a syntax error, because Perl has block scope. To return the variable you'd say:

method y {
  my $x;
  if $bool { $x = 100 }
  return $x;

To return the result of a method on self, you'd say:

method y {
  if $bool { my $x = 100 }

...and if you have a lot of stuff operating on $self and want to avoid a bunch of that typing, you could write:

method y {
  if $bool { my $x = 100 }

  given $self {
    # (pretend we have lots of code here that we save typing on)
    return .x;

It's always clear whether we're dealing with a variable (there's a $ or other variable-marking sigil) or a method (there's an invocant or a lone dot, which acts something like a method-call sigil).

I think that Ruby's use of sigils is great. Its sigil-for-scope makes much more sense given Ruby's "everything is an object" variables. I just wish that they had a sigil for local scope variables.

This would actually be a huge improvement on a current problem. See, Ruby 1.9 is going to have block-level scope. Unfortunately, this will sometimes change how code worked.

value = 10;
array.each { |value| do_something }

This code (in Ruby) will clobber value, because the value in the proc is not created in a distinct scope from the value to which 10 was assigned. When Ruby 1.9 is adopted, this code will change. The two value variables will be distinct, and the first value will not be clobbered.

If block scope had been introduced with a new sigil this would have been avoided. Your old code would be:

*value = 10;
array.each { |*value| do_something }

Well, of course it's clear that these would be the same! They both have the (hypothetical) function-scope sigil. Ruby 1.9 wouldn't break this, because instead of changing the way sigil-free local variables worked, it would let you have a block-local variable if you asked for it:

%value = 10;
array.each { |%value| do_something }

That first variable could use a star, too. The important thing is that the smaller-scoped variable would be marked as only existing in its block-local scope. Of course, running out of sigils is a risk, but I'd rather see Ruby 3.0 require twigils than have backcompat issues like this.

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  • I think your complaint boils down to "Ruby doesn't have 'use strict;'", combined with "Ruby can't tell the difference between a local variable and a method call". The perl 5 code that's actually equivalent to the ruby code is

    sub y {
        if false { $x = 100 }
        return $x;

    -- Note the lack of 'my' in the method; this would 'work' if use strict wasn't in effect, assuming of course that $x didn't exist elsewhere in the program. A call to y would return undef unless the program had assigned

  • It's not so much "why sigils are great" as "why bizarro heuristics for guessing variable bindings suck." Python's rules for introducing new variable bindings are stupid, but simple. Perl's are explicit and reasonable. Ruby's make me want to strangle kittens.